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If you disable this cookie, we will not be able to save your preferences. This means that every time you visit this website you will need to enable or disable cookies again.
This website uses third-party cookies including to collect anonymous information such as the number of visitors to the site, and the most popular pages.
Other cookies include:
Google Analytics 4
Keeping this cookie enabled helps us to improve our website and user experience.
Please enable Strictly Necessary Cookies first so that we can save your preferences!
What are Cookies?
To make this site work properly, we sometimes place small data files called cookies on your device. Most websites do this too.
A cookie is a small text file that a website saves on your computer or mobile device when you visit the site. It enables the website to remember your actions and preferences (such as login, language, font size and other display preferences) over a period of time, so you don’t have to keep re-entering them whenever you come back to the site or browse from one page to another.
We use the term cookie to describe cookies and similar technologies such as tags and pixels. Cookies are small data files that websites place on your computer, laptop or mobile device.
To improve the performance of our websites by understanding which parts work well, and which don’t.
To deliver relevant online advertising to you both on our websites and elsewhere. This is sometimes done by combining data that we already have about you with the data collected through Cookies. These Cookies are placed by us and selected third parties and enable adverts to be presented to you on our and third party websites.
To measure how effective our online advertising and marketing communications are.
To enable us to collect information about how you and other people use our websites.
This website also uses remarketing, a Google Analytics’ Display Advertiser feature for Google AdWords. Therefore, a third-party DoubleClick cookie is used in addition to the other cookies described in this document. The Google AdWords service is a third-party web analytics service provided by Google. Cookies are used to run ads and track sales and other conversions on the website. The Google AdWords service is used to advertise on third party websites to previous visitors of our site. It could mean that we advertise to previous visitors who haven’t completed a task on our site, for example using the contact form to make an inquiry. This could be in the form of an advertisement on the Google search results page, or a site in the Google Display Network. This website may use other third party remarketing applications and banners.
Enabling these cookies is not strictly necessary for the website to work but it will provide you with a better browsing experience. You can delete or block these cookies, but if you do that some features of this site may not work as intended.
Website cookies will not be used for any purpose other than stated above.
How to control cookies
You can control and/or delete cookies as you wish – for details, see aboutcookies.org. You can delete all cookies that are already on your computer and you can set most browsers to prevent them from being placed. If you do this, however, you may have to manually adjust some preferences every time you visit a site and some services and functionalities may not work.
Blocking or restricting Cookies
You can stop Cookies being used on your device by activating the setting on your browser that allows you to block the deployment of all or some Cookies. Please visit www.allaboutcookies.org to find out how. Please note, if you use your browser settings to block Cookies you may not be able to access all or parts of our site.
What Cookies do we use?
We use the following Cookies:
Strictly necessary Cookies. These are Cookies that are required for the operation of our website. They are necessary for the safety, security and integrity of the site. For example they help support the structure of the pages that are displayed to you, help to improve navigation and allow you to return to pages you have previously visited. This type of Cookie only lasts for the duration of the time you are visiting the website. When you leave the website they are deleted automatically.
Performance Cookies or analytical Cookies. They allow us to recognise and count the number of visitors and to see how visitors move around our website when they are using it. This helps us to improve the way our website works, for example, by ensuring that users are finding what they are looking for easily. The data is aggregated and anonymised, which means we cannot identify you as an individual.
Targeting Cookies. These Cookies will collect information about your browsing habits and allow us to show you adverts while you are browsing our site and other sites on the internet. They are set by us or by carefully selected third parties. They help us and the selected third parties to understand the performance of our marketing activities and improve the relevance of the adverts that you see.
TYPES OF COOKIES AND OTHER TECHNOLOGIES USED BY GOOGLE
Some or all of the cookies or other technologies described below may be stored in your browser, app or device. To manage how cookies are used, including rejecting the use of certain cookies, you can visit g.co/privacytools. You can also manage cookies in your browser (though browsers for mobile devices may not offer this visibility). Other technologies used to identify apps and devices may be managed in your device settings or in an app’s settings.
Cookies and other technologies used for functionality allow you to access features that are fundamental to a service. Things considered fundamental to a service include preferences, such as your choice of language, information relating to your session and optimisations that help maintain and improve that service.
Some cookies and other technologies are used to maintain your preferences. For example, most people who use Google services have a cookie called ‘NID’ or ‘ENID’ in their browsers, depending on their cookies choices. These cookies are used to remember your preferences and other information, such as your preferred language, how many results you prefer to have shown on a search results page (for example, 10 or 20) and whether you want to have Google’s SafeSearch filter turned on. Each ‘NID’ cookie expires 6 months from a user’s last use, while the ‘ENID’ cookie lasts for 13 months. Cookies called ‘VISITOR_INFO1_LIVE’ and ‘YEC’ serve a similar purpose for YouTube and are also used to detect and resolve problems with the service. These cookies last for 6 months and for 13 months, respectively.
Other cookies and technologies are used to maintain and enhance your experience during a specific session. For example, YouTube uses the ‘PREF’ cookie to store information such as your preferred page configuration and playback preferences like explicit auto-play choices, shuffle content and player size. For YouTube Music, these preferences include volume, repeat mode and auto-play. This cookie expires eight months from a user’s last use. The cookie ‘pm_sess’ also helps maintain your browser session and lasts for 30 minutes.
Cookies and other technologies may also be used to improve the performance of Google services. For example, the ‘CGIC’ cookie improves the delivery of search results by autocompleting search queries based on a user’s initial input. This cookie lasts for six months.
Google uses the ‘CONSENT’ cookie, which lasts for two years, to store a user’s state regarding their cookies choices. Another cookie, ‘SOCS’, lasts for 13 months and is also used to store a user’s state regarding their cookies choices.
Cookies and other technologies used for security help to authenticate users, prevent fraud and protect you as you interact with a service.
The cookies and other technologies used to authenticate users help ensure that only the actual owner of an account can access that account. For example, cookies called ‘SID’ and ‘HSID’ contain digitally signed and encrypted records of a user’s Google Account ID and most recent sign-in time. The combination of these cookies allows Google to block many types of attack, such as attempts to steal the content of forms submitted in Google services.
Some cookies and other technologies are used to prevent spam, fraud and abuse. For example, the ‘pm_sess’, ‘YSC’ and ‘AEC’ cookies ensure that requests within a browsing session are made by the user, and not by other sites. These cookies prevent malicious sites from acting on behalf of a user without that user’s knowledge. The ‘pm_sess’ cookie lasts for 30 minutes, while the ‘AEC’ cookie lasts for 6 months. The ‘YSC’ cookie lasts for the duration of a user’s browsing session.
Cookies and other technologies used for analytics help collect data that allows services to understand how you interact with a particular service. These insights allow services to both improve content and build better features that enhance your experience.
Some cookies and other technologies help sites and apps understand how their visitors engage with their services. For example, Google Analytics uses a set of cookies to collect information and report site usage statistics without personally identifying individual visitors to Google. ‘_ga’, the main cookie used by Google Analytics, enables a service to distinguish one visitor from another and lasts for two years. Any site that implements Google Analytics, including Google services, uses the ‘_ga’ cookie. Each ‘_ga’ cookie is unique to the specific property, so it cannot be used to track a given user or browser across unrelated websites.
Google services also use ‘NID’ and ‘ENID’ cookies on Google Search, and ‘VISITOR_INFO1_LIVE’ and ‘YEC’ cookies on YouTube, for analytics.
The ‘NID’ cookie is used to show Google ads in Google services for signed-out users, while the ‘ANID’ and ‘IDE’ cookies are used to show Google ads on non-Google sites. If you have personalised ads enabled, the ‘ANID’ cookie is used to remember this setting and lasts for 13 months in the European Economic Area (EEA), Switzerland and the United Kingdom (UK), and 24 months everywhere else. If you have turned off personalised ads, the ‘ANID’ cookie is used to store that setting until 2030. The ‘NID’ cookie expires six months after a user’s last use. The ‘IDE’ cookie lasts for 13 months in the European Economic Area (EEA), Switzerland and the United Kingdom (UK), and 24 months everywhere else.
Depending on your ad settings, other Google services, such as YouTube, may also use these and other cookies and technologies, such as the ‘VISITOR_INFO1_LIVE’ cookie, for advertising.
Some cookies and other technologies used for advertising are for users who sign in to use Google services. For example, the ‘DSID’ cookie is used to identify a signed-in user on non-Google sites and to remember whether the user has agreed to ad personalisation. It lasts for two weeks.
Through Google’s advertising platform, businesses can advertise in Google services, as well as on non-Google sites. Some cookies support Google showing ads on third-party sites and are set in the domain of the website that you visit. For example, the ‘_gads’ cookie enables sites to show Google ads. Cookies that start with ‘_gac_’ come from Google Analytics and are used by advertisers to measure user activity and the performance of their ad campaigns. The ‘_gads’ cookies last for 13 months and the ‘_gac_’ cookies last for 90 days.
Some cookies and other technologies are used to measure ad and campaign performance and conversion rates for Google ads on a site that you visit. For example, cookies that start with ‘_gcl_’ are primarily used to help advertisers determine how many times users who click on their ads end up taking an action on their site, such as making a purchase. Cookies used for measuring conversion rates are not used to personalise ads. ‘_gcl_’ cookies last for 90 days.
See more information about cookies used for advertising here.
Cookies and other technologies used for personalisation enhance your experience by providing personalised content and features, depending on your settings at g.co/privacytools or your app and device settings.
Personalised content and features include things such as more relevant results and recommendations, a customised YouTube homepage and ads that are tailored to your interests. For example, the ‘VISITOR_INFO1_LIVE’ cookie may enable personalised recommendations on YouTube based on past views and searches. And the ‘NID’ cookie enables personalised autocomplete features in Search as you type search terms. These cookies expire six months after a user’s last use. Another personalisation cookie, ‘UULE’, sends precise location information from your browser to Google’s servers so that Google can show you results that are relevant to your location. The use of this cookie depends on your browser settings and whether you have chosen to have location turned on for your browser. The ‘UULE’ cookie lasts up to six hours.
Non-personalised content and features are distinct from personalised content and features insofar as they are influenced by things like the content that you’re currently viewing, your current Google search and your general location.
MANAGING COOKIES IN YOUR BROWSER
Most browsers allow you to manage how cookies are set and used as you’re browsing, and to clear cookies and browsing data. Also, your browser may have settings letting you manage cookies on a site-by-site basis. For example, Google Chrome’s settings at chrome://settings/cookies allow you to delete existing cookies, allow or block all cookies, and set cookie preferences for websites. Google Chrome also offers Incognito mode, which deletes your browsing history and clears cookies on your device after you close your incognito windows.
MANAGING OTHER TECHNOLOGIES IN YOUR APPS AND DEVICES
Most mobile devices and applications allow you to manage how other technologies, such as unique identifiers used to identify a browser, app or device, are set and used. For example, the advertising ID on Android devices or Apple’s Advertising Identifier can be managed in your device’s settings, while app-specific identifiers may typically be managed in the app’s settings.